The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.— That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.— Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary   for the public good. He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of   immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his   Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to   attend to them. He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of   large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of   Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable   to tyrants only. He has called together legislative bodies at places   unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public   Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his   measures. He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing   with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. He has   refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be   elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have   returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the   mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions   within. He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for   that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to   pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of   new Appropriations of Lands. He has obstructed the Administration of   Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.   He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their   offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. He has erected a   multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our   people, and eat out their substance. He has kept among us, in times of   peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures. He has   affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil   power. He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign   to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their   Acts of pretended Legislation: For Quartering large bodies of armed troops   among us: For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any   Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States: For   cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: For imposing Taxes on us   without our Consent: For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of   Trial by Jury: For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended   offences For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring   Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its   Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for   introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies: For taking away our   Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the   Forms of our Governments: For suspending our own Legislatures, and   declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases   whatsoever. He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his   Protection and waging War against us. He has plundered our seas, ravaged   our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people. He is   at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the   works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of   Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and   totally unworthy of the Head of a civilized nation. He has constrained our   fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their   Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall   themselves by their Hands. He has excited domestic insurrections amongst   us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the   merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished   destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

No Comments Yet.

Leave a Reply

You must be logged in to post a comment.